The Delegations

The number of delegations listed by the compilers of the Prophet’s battles exceeded seventy. Detailed description of such a large number here is not possible; besides stating them in detail is not of a great benefit. Therefore, I am going to mention and elaborate upon what is of historical significance or interest. The reader should always keep in mind that while the majority of the tribes arrived in Madinah after the Conquest, there were also preconquest delegations.

.1. The Delegation of `Abdul-Qais: This tribe came twice. The first time wasin or before 5 A.H. Munqidh bin Hibban, a member of that tribe, used to trade in Madinah. As soon as he heard of Islam while he came to Madinah for trading, which was after the migration, he embraced Islam and carried a pledge from the Prophet to his people who eventually became Muslims also. Thirteen or fourteen of them came to the Prophet in one of the Sacred Months. It was then that they asked the Prophet’s advice about the faith and drinks. Their chief was Al-Ashaj Al-`Asari, to whom Allah’s Messenger said: “You have two qualities that Allah likes: farsightedness and tolerance.”

Their second visit occurred in the Year of Delegations and they comprised of forty men. Al-Jarud bin Al-’Ala’ Al-’Abdi, who was Christian but turned to be a good Muslim, was a member of that group.

2. The Delegation of Daws: The arrival of this tribe occurred in early 7 A.H. when Allah’s Messenger was in Khaibar. At-Tufail bin `Amr AdDawsi (May Allah be Pleased with him) had become a Muslim when Allah’s Messenger was in Makkah. He went back home to his people where he continued calling them to Islam, but continued to refuse until he became despaired and returned to Allah’s Messenger and asked him to invoke Allah against Daws, but Allah’s Messenger invoked Allah to guide Daws. Later on, Daws embraced Islam. So At-Tufail arrived in Madinah accompanied by seventy or eighty families from his people in early A.H., at the time that Allah’s Messenger was at Khaibar, so he caught up to him there.

3. The Delegation of Farwah Bani `Amr Al-Judhami: Farwah was an Arableader in the Byzantine army. He was a Byzantine agent ruler by proxy over the Arabs allied to the Byzantines. His center was at Ma’an and his rulership extended to the surrounding areas in the lands of Ash-Sham. Seeing the stamina and courage of the Muslims, he became a Muslim. The battle of Mu’tah, which took place in the eighth year of Al-Hijra, compelled his admiration. He sent a white mule as a gift with a messenger of his to Allah’s Messenger to inform him of his conversion into Islam. When the Byzantines learned that he embraced Islam, they sent him to prison. At first they gave him an opportunity to choose one of the two: “either he turns back from Islam or death shall be his punishment.’’ After his refusal they crucified him and beheaded him at a spring called `Afra’ in Palestine.

4. The Delegation of Suda’: The arrival of this delegation was after thedeparture of Allah’s Messenger from Al-Ji’ranah in 8 A.H. It was because Allah’s Messenger had already dispatched a mission of four hundred Muslims and asked them to go to Suda’, which was a spring in Yemen. While the mission was camping there at the starting point of a canal, Ziyad bin Al-Harith As-Suda’i learned of their stay, so he came to Allah’s Messenger and said: “I have come to you as a deputy of my people, so tell your army to go back and I will give a guarantee on the behalf of my people.’’ The army was sent away from the canal. In his turn As-Suda’i went back, encouraged and urged his people to come and meet Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Eventually fifteen of them came and pledged allegiance to him as true Muslims. Returning home, they in their turn urged the rest to become Muslim. Thus Islam spread among them. Later on, a hundred men joined Allah’s Messenger in Hajjatul-Wada’ (Farewell Pilgrimage).

5. The Arrival of Ka`b bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma: Ka`b was from a familyof poets, and was considered one of the best poets among the Arabs. He would satirize the Prophet when he was not a Muslim. In 8 A.H. when Allah’s Messenger had returned from the invasion of Ta’if, Bujair bin Zuhair wrote a letter to his brother Ka`b warning and advising him: “Allah’s Messenger killed some men in Makkah who used to satirize and harm him, and the poets who survived fled in all directions for their lives. So, if you want to save your skin, hasten to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He never kills those who come to him repenting. If you refuse to do as I say, it is up to you to try to save your skin by any means.’’ The two brothers corresponded with one another for a long time until Ka`b felt awkward as if the earth had restricted around him. Arriving in Madinah, he stayed at a man’s house from Juhainah as a guest. They performed the Morning prayer together; when he was about to leave, the man suggested that he go to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He went there, sat by him, and placed his hand in his. Allah’s Messenger who had never seen Ka`b before, did not recognize him. Ka`b then said: “O Messenger of Allah! Ka`b bin Zuhair has come to you as a repentant Muslim; will he be secure and forgiven if I fetch him?’’ Allah’s Messenger said, “Yes.’’ “I am Ka`b bin Zuhair,’’ he said. Upon hearing that, one of the Helpers rose to his feet and asked the Messenger to let him cut his throat. “Leave him alone!’’ said the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), “he has become a repentant Muslim after his disposal of the past.’’ Ka`b then recited his wellknown poem ‘‘Su’ad…’’ in which he praised the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), thanked him and apologized for the wrongs he had done. He acknowledged Muhammad’s mission. Both Emigrants and Helpers were spoken of in this poem but differently. He praised the Emigrants but criticized the Helpers, for one of them demanded the Prophet’s permission to kill him. Later on Ka`b tried to compensate for that by praising the Helpers in another poem.

6. The `Udhrah Delegation: This delegation consisted of twelve men andarrived in Madinah in Safar, 9 A.H. One of them was Hamzah bin AnNu’man (May Allah be Pleased with him). When they were asked who they were, they said: “We are Bani `Udhrah, the maternal foster brothers of Qusai. We are the ones who supported Qusai, and removed Khuza`ah and Bani Bakr from the bosom of Makkah. We are a people of relatives and kin.’’ So Allah’s Messenger welcomed them and gave good tidings to them of the conquest of Ash-Sham; on the other hand, forbade them from consulting a soothsayer and from eating the slain animals they slaughtered. Eventually they became Muslims, stayed there for several days and then left.

7. The Bali Delegation: Their arrival was in Rabi`ul-Awwal, 9 A.H. Theyembraced Islam and stayed in Madinah for three days. Their chief Abu AdDubaib wondered whether hospitality was rewarded by Allah. Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:

``Yes, and so is any charity you offer to poor or rich people as Sadaqah.’’

He also inquired about the time allotted for hospitality, to which the Prophet responded, “Three days.’’ He asked, “What about the stray ewe?’’ The Prophet said: “It is either yours or your brother’s; otherwise it goes to the wolf.’’ He inquired about the stray camel. “It is none of your business. Leave it alone until its owner finds it.”

8. The Thaqif Delegation: Their arrival was in Ramadan, 9 A.H., after thereturn of Allah’s Messenger from Tabuk. As to how they became Muslims, this could be deduced from the following:

Their chief `Urwah bin Mas’ud Ath-Thaqafi came to see Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) after the latter’s return from At-Ta’if in Dhul-Qa`dah, 8 A.H. `Urwah became a Muslim. He thought that if he tells his people about Islam and call them to embrace it, they would do so, because he had always been an obeyed leader. He was even more beloved to them than their own firstborn. But contrary to that, when he called them to Islam they shot arrows at him from every direction and killed him. They remained as they were for months before they started discussing the situation again among themselves. Upon realizing that they were incapable of fighting the neighboring Arabs who had paid allegiance to the Prophet and converted to Islam, they made up their mind to dispatch a man to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They concluded that `Abd Yalil bin `Amr would be the right messenger.

‘Abd refused to do such a thing lest they should kill him as they had killed `Urwah (May Allah be Pleased with him). “I will not do such a thing unless you send some other men with me,’’ said `Abd. So, they sent two men of their allies and three others from Bani Malik. The six of them included `Uthman bin Abul-’As Ath-Thaqafi who was the youngest.

When they entered into the Prophet’s audience, a tent was erected in a corner of the Masjid so that they might listen to the Qur’an and see the people in prayer. During their stay, they came again and again to the Prophet who kept on calling them to embrace Islam, until their chief asked Allah’s Messenger to enter into a peace treaty between him and Thaqif by means of which he would allow them to commit fornication, drink wine and deal with usury. They also asked him not to injure their idol Al-Lat or to oblige them to perform the prayer. Finally they insisted that they would not knock down the idols themselves. But Allah’s Messenger turned down all their requests. They went aside to council. Realizing that there were no other alternatives, they submitted and professed Islam. The only condition that they insisted on was that the demolition of Al-Lat should be dealt with and handled by Allah’s Messenger whereas Thaqif should in no way knock it down themselves. Allah’s Messenger agreed and took a pledge from them.

Being the most attentive and the keenest to understand Islam and learn the Qur’an, `Uthman bin Abul-’As was appointed by Allah’s Messenger as the chief of his people. His keenness to learn the Qur’an and understand Islam was clearly apparent through his behavior during their stay.

Every morning, the group of delegates would go to see Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Being the youngest one, `Uthman bin Abul-’As (May Allah be Pleased with him) was left behind to watch their camels and belongings. At noon when they would come back and sleep, `Uthman (May Allah be Pleased with him) used to go to Allah’s Messenger in order to learn the Qur’an and inquire about religious matters. If it happened that Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was asleep, he would then go to Abu Bakr (May Allah be Pleased with him) for the same purpose. With the passage of time, he turned out to be a source of blessing to his people. Later, during the Apostasy Wars (Ar-Riddah) when Thaqif were determined to apostatize, he addressed them saying: “O people of Thaqif! You have been the last at embracing Islam, so do not be the first to apostatize.’’ Consequently they gave up apostasy and remained adhered to Islam.

The group of delegates returned home and decided to conceal the truth for the time. They told their people that they should expect a fight at any moment, pretending to be grieved and depressed. They claimed that Allah’s Messenger demanded that they should embrace Islam and abandon adultery, drinking wine, dealing with usury, and some other things, or else he would fight them. Seized by the arrogance and the zeal of Al-Jahiliyah (preIslamic traditions), Thaqif remained for days intent on fighting. Then Allah cast terror and depression in their hearts in such a way that they gave up the idea of fighting and thought that the delegation should go back to the Prophet and announce their acceptance of the conditions. It was then that the group of delegates told them the truth and revealed the terms of their peace-talk with the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), consequently the people of Thaqif embraced Islam.

Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent some people to destroy the idol Al-Lat under the command of Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him). Al-Mughirah bin Shu’bah (May Allah be Pleased with him), stood to his feet, held the hoe and the ax and said to his companions: “By Allah, I will make you laugh at Thaqif.’’ He struck Al-Lat with them, and pretended to fall down while doing so. The people of Thaqif were frightened at that sight and said: “May Allah dismay Al-Mughirah. The goddess has killed him.’’ Hearing that Al-Mughirah jumped up to his feet and said: “May Allah bring shame on you. Al-Lat is nothing but a mass of dirt and stones.’’ Then he struck the door and broke it. He mounted its highest wall, and so did the other men. They knocked AlLat down until they leveled it to the ground. Then they dug up its foundation and brought out its jewels and garments, to the great astonishment of Thaqif. Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him) and his group came back to Allah’s Messenger carrying Al-Lat’s jewels and garments. Allah’s Messenger distributed them and thanked Allah for helping his Prophet and solidifying his religion.

9. The Message of the Yemeni Kings: After the return of Allah’s Messengerfrom Tabuk, a message came to him from the kings of Himyar, Al-Harith bin `Abd Kilal, Nu’aim bin `Abd Kilal and An-Nu’man bin Qeel who were the rulers of Dhi Ra’in, Hamdan and Mu’afir. Their messenger was Malik bin Murrah Ar-Rahawi. They sent him in order to inform the Prophet that they had embraced Islam and parted with polytheism. In reply to their message, Allah’s Messenger stated the rights and responsibilities of the believers, gave them the promise of Allah and the promise of His Messenger for those entering covenants provided they paid the tribute. He sent to them some of his Companions under the command of Mu`adh bin Jabal (May Allah be Pleased with him).

10. The Hamdan Delegation: The arrival of this delegation was in the 9th A.H. after the Messenger’s return from Tabuk. Allah’s Messenger gave them a pledge to guarantee the fulfillment of their demands. He appointed Malik bin An-Namt as chief over those of his people who embraced Islam. Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him) was sent with the purpose of calling the rest of them to Islam. He stayed with them for six months calling them to Islam but no one responded to his call. Later, `Ali bin Abi Talib (May Allah be Pleased with him) was dispatched and Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him) was ordered to return. Upon arriving at Hamdan, `Ali (May Allah be Pleased with him) communicated to them a message from Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and called them to Islam. They responded to the call and became Muslims. `Ali (May Allah be Pleased with him) wrote to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) informing him of the good news. Allah’s Messenger was briefed on the content of that letter, so he prostrated, then raised his head up and said: “Peace be upon Hamdan. Peace be upon Hamdan.’’

11. The Delegation of Bani Fazarah: Upon the Messenger’s return from

Tabuk, the delegation of Bani Fazarah came to see him. That was in the 9th A.H. The group of delegates consisted of more than ten men. They came in order to profess Islam and complain about the drought in their region. Allah’s Messenger ascended the pulpit, lifted his hands up and implored Allah to send rain to them and said:

``O Allah, let rain fall down and water Your country and animals, and spread Your mercy and bring to life the dead lands. O Allah, send rain that would be saving, comforting, and sprouting grass, and overwhelming vast areas sooner and not later. Let it be useful rain and not harmful. O Allah, let it be rain of mercy and not rain of torture and chastisement. Let that rain not be destructive nor cause floods. O Allah, send us down water and help to fight the enemies.’’

12. The Najran Delegation: Najran is a large area of land located at a considerable distance south of Makkah towards Yemen. It included seventy three villages. It took a fast-rider one day ride to cover the area. Its military forces consisted of a hundred thousand fighters.

Their arrival was in the 9th year of A.H. The delegation comprised of sixty men. Twenty-four of them were of noble families. Three out of twenty-four were leaders of Najran. `Abdul-Maseeh was Al-’Aqib, i.e., who was in charge of administration and government affairs. The second was As-Saiyid (the Master) under whose supervision was the cultural and political affairs, his name was Al-Aiham or Shurahbil. Abu Harithah bin `Alqamah was the third. He was a bishop to whom all religious presidency and spiritual leadership belonged.

When that group of delegates arrived in Madinah, they met the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and exchanged inquiries with him; but when he called them to Islam and recited the Qur’an to them, they refused. They asked him what he thought about `Isa (i.e., Jesus), he delayed his reply for an entire day until the following Qur’anic reply was revealed to him:

``Verily, the likeness of Jesus before Allah is the likeness of Adam. He created him from dust, then (He) said to him: `Be!’ -- and he was. (This is) the truth from your Lord, so be not of those who doubt. Then whoever disputes with you concerning him (Jesus) after (all this) knowledge that has come to you, (i.e., Jesus being a slave of Allah, and having no share in Divinity) say (O Muhammad): `Come, let us call our sons and your sons, our women and your women, ourselves and yourselves -then we pray and invoke (sincerely) the curse of Allah upon those who lie.’’ [3:59-61]

When it was morning, Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) told them about `Isa (Jesus) in the light of the recently revealed Verses. He left them for a whole day to consult and think it over. The next day, they still showed disapproval to accepting Allah’s Words about `Isa or to embrace Islam, the Prophet suggested Al-Mubahalah, which is for each party to supplicate and beg Allah to send His curse upon those who were telling lies. After that suggestion of his, the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) came forward wrapping AlHasan and Al-Husain(May Allah be Pleased with all of them) under his garment, while Fatimah(May Allah be Pleased with her) was walking behind him. Seeing that the Prophet was serious and prepared to face them firmly, they went aside and started to consult one another. Al-’Aqib and AsSaiyid said to each other: “We shall not supplicate. For, I swear by Allah, if he is really a Prophet and exchanges curses with us, we will never prosper nor will our descendants, and neither us nor our animals will survive it.’’ Finally, they decided to leave the matter to the decision of Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) about their cause. They came to him and said: “We agree to what you demand from us.’’ Allah’s Messenger then ordered them to pay the Jizyah(i.e., head tax) and made agreement with them for the provision of two thousand garments, one thousand of them to be delivered in Rajab, the other thousand in Safar. With every garment they had to pay an ounce (of gold). In return they had the covenant of Allah and His Messenger(May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). He gave them permission to practice their religious affairs freely. They asked the Prophet to appoint a trustworthy man to receive the money, so he sent to them the trustworthy man of this nation, Abu `Ubaidah bin Al-Jarrah(May Allah be Pleased with him), to receive their wealth.

After that Islam began to spread in Najran naturally and they did not have to pay the Jizyah that the non-Muslims usually paid. It was said that AlAqib and As-Saiyid embraced Islam soon after they reached Najran on their journey back home. It is also said that the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent `Ali (May Allah be Pleased with him) to them for the collection of charities and tribute.

13. The Bani Hanifah Delegation: They arrived in Madinah in the 9th year of A.H. They comprised of seventeen people and included the Master of Liars, Musailimah bin Thumamah bin Kabeer bin Habib bin Al-Harith of Bani Hanifah. The group of delegates was housed in a Helper’s home. They came to the Prophet and declared their acceptance of Islam. As for Musailimah the Liar, versions vary concerning his embracing Islam. Observation of all the versions shows clearly that Musailimah expressed disapproval and revealed arrogance, boastful spirit and expectations to be a prince.

At first the Prophet tried to deal well with him charitably, but that did not work. Allah’s Messenger perceived evil in his soul and recognized that he was one of those two evils he dreamt of while sleeping.

The Prophet had a dream that he had been granted the treasures of earth. Two golden bracelets fell upon his hand, which distressed and worried him a lot. He was taught by inspiration to blow them off, so he did that and they were gone. They were interpreted to be two liars who would come after him. So, when Musailimah acted that way and showed disapproval, he realized that he would be one of the two liars. However, Musailimah used to say: “If Muhammad appointed me a successor of his, I would be a Muslim.’’ Later on Allah’s Messenger came to him, with a piece of palm leaf in his hand, and in the company of his orator, Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas (May Allah be Pleased with him), while he was among some of his friends. The Prophet spoke to him, but Musailimah addressed him saying: “If you agree to transfer the whole thing to me after your death, I will not stand in your way.’’ Allah’s Messenger replied: “If you asked me to give you this (i.e., a piece of a palm leaf), I would not grant it to you. Your fate has been written down. Even if you repented and stopped what you are doing, Allah appointed that you would be slain. By Allah, I swear, that I see you now in the very state that has been revealed to me. You will hear my answer from him Thabit.’’ Then he went away.

The Prophet’s predictions of Musailimah would come true. When Musailimah returned to Yamamah, he kept thinking about the Prophet and how he can become his partner. His dreams and thoughts went so far as to claim that he himself was a prophet. To confirm his prophecy, he started uttering rhymed statements. He said that it was lawful to drink wine and commit adultery. He, however, bore witness that Allah’s Messenger was a real Prophet. His people, who were fascinated by what he allowed them to do, followed him and made bargains with him. He grew so prominent among them that they called him the beneficent of Al-Yamamah. He wrote to Allah’s Messenger saying: “I have been appointed an associate with you, so I will have half and Quraish will have the other half of the people’s affairs.’’ The reply of Allah’s Messenger was a letter saying:

``Verily, the earth is Allah’s. He gives it as a heritage to whom He wills of His servants, and the (blessed) end is for the Muttaqun (pious).’’ [7:128]

Ibn Mas’ud (May Allah be Pleased with him) said: When the two messengers of Musailimah, Ibn An-Nawwahah and Ibn Uthal, came to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), he asked them: “Do you bear witness that I am the Messenger of Allah?’’ Their reply was: “We testify that Musailimah is the messenger of Allah.’’ The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said, “I believe in Allah and in His Messenger. If I had ever thought of killing a messenger I would have killed you both.’’

Musailimah’s claim to prophethood was in 10 A.H. But he was killed in the battle of Yamamah during the leadership of Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (May Allah be Pleased with him), in Rabi`ul-Awwal, in 12 A.H. He was killed by Wahshi (May Allah be Pleased with him), the one who had killed Hamzah (May Allah be Pleased with him). The second person who claimed to be a prophet was Al-Aswad Al-’Ansi who was in Yemen. He was killed by Fairuz. His head was cut off a day and a night before the Prophet’s death. So when the Revelation came, he informed the Companions of the news. Later the news from Yemen reached Abu Bakr (May Allah be Pleased with him) about his death.

14. The Delegation of Bani `Amir bin Sa’sa’ah: Among the group of delegates were `Amir bin At-Tufail, the enemy of Allah, Arbad bin Qais, Labid’s maternal brother, Khalid bin Ja`far and Jabbar bin Sulma. All of them were the leaders and devils of their people. `Amir was the one who double-crossed the group at the Well of Ma`unah. When this delegation made their mind to come to Madinah, `Amir and Arbid conspired to kill the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). So when the group of delegates arrived, `Amir kept on talking to the Prophet whereas Arbid turned aside trying to draw his sword. He managed to draw his sword slightly when Allah froze his hand so that he was unable to withdraw it. Allah protected the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Prophet invoked Allah against them. When they returned, Allah sent down a thunderbolt on Arbid and his camel, and he was electrocuted. As for `Amir he went to the home of a woman from Bani Salul with a sore gland. He eventually died while he was saying: “What am I like? I have a gland similar to a camel. And here I am dying in the house of the woman from Bani Salul.”

It is narrated in Sahih Al-Bukhari that `Amir came to the Prophet and said: “I grant you an opportunity to choose one of the three: you will have the flat land people and I will have townspeople, or I will succeed you; otherwise, I will invade you with Ghatfan people and two thousand horses.’’ But, later he got the plague in a woman’s house. So he said: “What! I have a gland similar to a camel’s, and here I am in a woman’s house of so-and-so people. Fetch me my mare!’’ He mounted it but died on its back.

15. The Tujeeb Delegation: They came to Madinah carrying the surplus charity (Sadaqat) of their people, meaning the extra charity that remained after they had distributed the poor-due. They comprised of thirteen men. They asked about the Qur’an and Sunnah (the Prophet’s saying, deeds and sanctions) so that they might learn them. They demanded things from Allah’s Messenger to which he gave them pledges. They did not stay long. When Allah’s Messenger acknowledged their demands and allowed them to depart, they sent him a boy whom they had left with their property. The young man said to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him): “By Allah, I swear, I have left my home (for Madinah) with no purpose than that you invoke Allah, the Great and Almighty, for me to forgive me and have mercy on me and to make my heart a source of content and sufficiency.’’ Allah’s Messenger supplicated Allah to grant him what he demanded.

From that time on, he was the most content person. During the Apostasy Wars, he stood fast as a Muslim and warned his people and reminded them of Allah and went on preaching until they stood fast and did not apostatize. The group of delegates met the Prophet again in the Farewell Pilgrimage in 10 A.H.

16. The Tai’ Delegation: Among this group of delegates was Zaid Al-Khail.They spoke to the Prophet, who urged them to embrace Islam. They agreed and became good Muslims. Concerning Zaid, Allah’s Messenger said: “The Arabs are never exact at estimating people. They have never told me about the virtues of a man correctly; whenever I see the man they speak of,

I realize that they have overestimated him, except for Zaid Al-Khail (May Allah be Pleased with him). When I met him I knew that they had underestimated him.’’ Then he named him `Zaid Al-Khair’ (i.e., Zaid, the bounteous).

The delegations arrived successively in Madinah during the 9th and 10th years of A.H. Some of the delegations were Yemeni, Al-Azd; Bani Sa`d Hudhaim from Quda’ah, Bani `Amir bin Qais; Bani Asad, Bahra’, Khaulan, Muharib, Bani Al-Harith bin Ka`b, Ghamid, Bani Al-Muntafiq, Salaman, Bani `Abs, Muzainah, Murad, Zubaid, Kindah, Dhi Murrah, Ghassan, Bani `Eesh, and Nakh’ which were the last group of delegates. The Nakh’ Delegation comprised of two hundred men and they arrived in the middle of Muharram in the 11th year of A.H.

The succession of these delegations indicated the great degree of acceptance of the Islamic call. It manifested its influence and domination on vast areas of Arabia. The Arabs observed Madinah with such great respect and estimation that they could do nothing but surrender and submit to it. Madinah had become the headquarters of all Arabia, so it was impossible to avoid it. We dare not say that all the Arabs were possessed by this religion, as there still existed some hard-hearted Bedouins who became Muslim only because their masters did so. Their souls were not purified yet. Their tendency to raids had been deeply rooted in their souls. The teachings of Islam had not crystallized in their souls as of yet. About some of them the Qur’an says:

“The bedouins are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and more likely to be in ignorance of the limits (Allah’s Commandments and His legal laws, etc.) which Allah has revealed to His Messenger. And Allah is All-Knower, All-Wise. And of the bedouins there are some who look upon what they spend (in Allah’s cause) as a fine and watch for calamities for you, on them be the calamity of evil. And Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.’’ [9:97, 98]

Allah praised others by saying:

``And of the bedouins there are some who believe in Allah and the Last Day, and look upon what they spend in Allah’s cause as approaches to Allah, and a cause of receiving the Messenger’s invocations. Indeed these are an approach for them. Allah will admit them to His Mercy. Certainly Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.’’ [9:99]

Those of them who were present in Makkah, Madinah, Thaqif, as well as in many areas of Yemen and Bahrain were different because Islam had become firmly established in their souls. Some of them were great Companions and leaders of the Muslims.

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