The Conquest of Makkah

Ibn Al-Qaiyim described the conquest of Makkah as the greatest conquest through which Allah honored His religion, Messenger, soldiers and believing party. Through it He released the Sacred House, whose guidance all people sought, from the disbelievers and polytheists. It was a great auspicious event [witnessed] in heavens and on earth. It was the most significant sign of the beginning of a new era that would witness the great march of Islamization and the entry of people, in droves, into the fold of Islam. It provided an ever shining face and a most glowing source of inspiration to the entire earth.

Pre-Conquest Events

According to the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Arab tribes were given the option to join in an alliance treaty with the Muslims or the Quraish. Should any of these allied tribes suffer from an act of aggression, then the party to which it was allied with would have the right to retaliation. Therefore, Banu Bakr allied with the Quraish, and Khuza`ah allied with the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Although they lived in peace for sometime, however, hidden motives, which stretched back to the pre-Islamic period, began to ignite the never ending fire of revenge which would trigger fresh hostilities. Banu Bakr, without least care for the provisions of the treaty, attacked Banu Khuza`ah at a place called alWateer in Sha’ban, 8 A.H. Quraish assisted Banu Bakr with men and arms, taking advantage of the dark night. Pressed by their enemies, the tribesmen of Khuza`ah sought refuge in the Holy Sanctuary, however, even there, their lives were not spared. Contrary to all accepted traditions, Nawfal, the chief of Banu Bakr, chased them within the sanctified area, where no blood should be shed, and killed them.

When the aggrieved party sought justice from their Muslim allies, the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), as their leader, demanded an immediate remedy for the violation of the treaty and for the slaying of men, who were allied with him, in the sanctified area. Three demands were made, the acceptance of any one of them was essential:

  1. To pay blood money for the victims of Khuza`ah, and
  2. terminate their alliance with Banu Bakr, or
  3. consider the truce to have been nullified.

This behavior on the part of the Quraish was a clear breach of the treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah and was an obvious act of hostility against the allies of the Muslims, i.e., Banu Khuza`ah. The Quraish immediately realized the grave situation and feared the horrible consequences appearing on the horizon. They immediately called for an emergency meeting and decided to send their chief Abu Sufyan to Madinah for a renewal of the truce. He directly headed for the house of his daughter Umm Habibah (the Prophet’s wife).

But as he went to sit on the Messenger’s bed, she folded it up. So he said, “My daughter do you think that the bed is too good for me or that I am too good for the bed.’’ She replied, “It is the bed of Allah’s Messenger, and you are an unclean polytheist.”

Being disgusted at the rude reply of his daughter, Abu Sufyan stepped out of her room and went to see the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), but the latter was well aware of his tricks and did not hold him any assurance. He then approached Abu Bakr (May Allah be Pleased with him), but the latter too declined to intercede. He contacted `Umar to intercede but this great Companion made a point-blank refusal. At last he saw `Ali bin Abi Talib and began begging him in the most humble words, cunningly pointing to the prospects of mastery over all the Arabs if he were to intercede for the renewal of the treaty. `Ali also refused.

Abu Sufyan turned his steps back to Makkah in a state of bitter disappointment and utter horror. There he submitted a report of his meeting with his daughter, Abu Bakr, `Umar and `Ali’s (May Allah be Pleased with all of them) reaction and the meaningful silence of the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Makkans were disappointed, but did not expect the forthcoming danger.

Preparations for the Attack, and the Imposition of a News Blackout

On the authority of At-Tabari, Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked his wife, `Aishah(May Allah be Pleased with her), to make preparation that were particular to marching out to war three days prior to receiving the news relating to the breach of covenant. Abu Bakr (May Allah be Pleased with him), meanwhile, came in and asked `Aishah what the matter was, showing surprise at the preparations being made as it was not, as he said, the usual time for war. She replied that she had no idea. On the morning of the third day, `Amr bin

Salim Al-Khuza’i arrived in the company of forty horsemen to brief the Prophet on the affliction of his people and seeking the Muslims’ help for retaliation. The people of Madinah then learned that the Quraish had breached the covenant. Budail followed `Amr, and then Abu Sufyan and the news was unequivocally confirmed.

With the view of securing a complete news blackout concerning his military intentions, the Prophet dispatched an eight-man mission under the leadership of Abu Qatadah bin Rab’i (May Allah be Pleased with him) in the direction of Edam, a short distance from Madinah, in Ramadan, 8 A.H. This was done in order to divert the attention of people and screen the main target with which he was preoccupied.

There was so much fear and terror everywhere that Hatib (May Allah be Pleased with him), one of the most trusted followers of the Prophet secretly dispatched a female messenger with a letter to Makkah containing information of the intended attack. The Prophet received revelation informing him of Hatib’s action and sent `Ali, Al-Miqdad, Az-Zubair and Abu Marthad (May Allah be Pleased with all of them) with the instructions to go after her. They overtook the messenger, and after a long search discovered the letter carefully hidden in her locks. The Prophet summoned Hatib and asked him what had induced him to this act.

He replied, “O Messenger of Allah, I have no affinity of blood with the Quraish; there is only a kind of friendly relationship between them and myself. My family is in Makkah and there is no one to look after them or to offer protection to them. My position stands in striking contrast to that of the refugees whose families are secure due to their blood ties with Quraish. I felt that since I am not related to them, I should, for the safety of my children, earn their gratitude by doing some good to them. I swear by Allah that I have not done this act as an apostate, forsaking Islam. I was prompted only by the considerations I have just explained.”

‘Umar (May Allah be Pleased with him) wanted to cut his head off as a hypocrite, but the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) accepted his excuse and granted him pardon, then addressed `Umar saying:

“He is one of those who fought in the battle of Badr. What do you know `Umar? Perhaps Allah has looked at the people of Badr and said: `Do as you please, for I have forgiven you.’’’

`Umar (May Allah be Pleased with him) released him and said, “Allah and

His Messenger know best.’’

The Muslim Army Proceeds to Makkah

After making full preparation, the Prophet proceeded to Makkah at the head of ten thousand soldiers on the 10th of Ramadan, 8 A.H. He appointed Abu Ruhm Al-Ghifari (May Allah be Pleased with him) in charge of Madinah during his absence. When they reached Al-Juhfah, Al-`Abbas bin `AbdulMuttalib and his family came to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and joined them. At al-Abwa’, the Muslims came across Abu Sufyan bin Al-Harith and `Abdullah bin Umaiyah, the Prophet’s cousins, but, on account of the harm they had inflicted, and their satiric language against the believers, they were not welcomed. `Ali addressed Abu Sufyan to go and request the Prophet for pardon and confess his illbehavior in a manner similar to that of the brothers of Yusuf (May peace be upon him!) (the Prophet Joseph):

``They said: `By Allah! Indeed Allah has preferred you above us, and we certainly have been sinners.’’’ [12:91]

Abu Sufyan followed `Ali’s advice, to which the Prophet quoted Allah’s Words:

``He said: `No reproach on you this day, may Allah forgive you, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy!’’’ [12:92]

Abu Sufyan recited some Verses paying a generous tribute to the Prophet and professing Islam as his only religion.

Allah’s Messenger was fasting when he began the journey, and the people were also fasting. When they reached Al-Kadeed a location with water between `Usfan and Qudaid, he broke his fast and the people did likewise. They began moving again until they reached the valley of Fatimah in Marr az-Zahran where they camped for the night. The Prophet ordered the people light their camp fires which amounted to ten thousand fires. `Umar was put in charge of the watch.

Abu Sufyan Before the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him)

In the meantime, Abu Sufyan along with Hakim bin Hizam and Budail bin Warqa’, who were two of the most terrible polytheists, went out to survey [the Muslims]. Before they reached near the camp, they met `Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him), the Prophet’s uncle. He informed Abu Sufyan of the situation and advised him to accept Islam, and persuade his people to surrender to Muhammad (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him); otherwise, he would be killed.

Under the prevailing compelling circumstances, Abu Sufyan went with `Abbas to meet the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Muslims were furious to see Abu Sufyan and wanted to kill him on the spot. But the two men managed, not without difficulties, to see Allah’s Messenger who advised that they see him the following day. The Prophet addressed Abu Sufyan saying: “Woe to you! Isn’t it time for you to bear witness to the Oneness of Allah and Prophethood of Muhammad?’’ Here, he began to request the Prophet in the most sincere words that testify to the Prophet’s generosity and mild temper begging for pardon and forgiveness, and professing wholeheartedly the new Faith.

On request from `Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him), the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), in the context of the general amnesty he proclaimed, gave Abu Sufyan, who had a liking for boasting, a special privilege, saying:

“He who takes refuge in Abu Sufyan’s house is safe; whosoever confines himself to his house, the occupants of it shall be in safety, and he who enters the Sacred Masjid is safe.’’

The Muslim Army Heads for Makkah

On the morning of Tuesday, 17th of Ramadan, 8 A.H., the Prophet left Marr Az-Zahran. He ordered Al-`Abbas to detain Abu Sufyan at a place that would offer him a full view of the Muslim army as it marched forth on its way towards Makkah; offering him the chance to see the great and powerful soldiers of Allah. The different tribes successively passed with their banners held hight, until at last the battalion of the Emigrants and Helpers being lead by the Prophet who was heavily armed marched by. Abu Sufyan began to wonder at the identity of those people, to which Al-`Abbas said that they were Muhammad and his Companions. Abu Sufyan said that no army however powerful could resist those people and addressing Al-`Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him), he said: “I swear by Allah that the sovereignty of your brother’s son has become too powerful to withstand.’’ Al-`Abbas answered, “It is rather the power of Prophethood,’’ to which the former agreed.

Sa`d bin `Ubadah (May Allah be Pleased with him) carried the banner of the Helpers. When he passed by Abu Sufyan, he said “Today will witness the great fight, you cannot seek sanctuary at the Ka`bah. Today will witness the humiliation of the Quraish.’’ Abu Sufyan complained about this to the Prophet who became angry and said, “Nay, today the Ka`bah will be sanctified, and the Quraish honored,’’ and he quickly ordered that Sa`d should be stripped off the banner and entrusted to his son Qais (May Allah be Pleased with him), in another version, to Az-Zubair (May Allah be Pleased with him).

The Quraish Prepare for the Advancing Muslim Army

Al-`Abbas urged Abu Sufyan to hasten into Makkah and warn the Quraish against any aggressive behavior towards the Muslims. There in Makkah, he shouted at the top of his voice and warned against any hostilities advising them to seek safety in his house. His wife became angry and started to pull hard on his moustache, cursing him and abusing his cowardly attitude.

The people in Makkah began to mock Abu Sufyan and dispersed in different directions, some into their houses, others into the Holy Sanctuary, while some undisciplined and uncontrolled wicked persons led by `Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, Safwan bin Umaiyah, and Suhail bin `Amr camped at a place called Khandamah, with murderous intent in their minds.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), on his part, modestly and calmly drew the final arrangements for the military breakthrough awaiting the Muslims, by Allah’s Will. He appointed Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him) as a leader of the right flank of the army and placed the tribes of Aslam, Sulaim, Ghifar, Muzainah and Juhainah under his command to enter Makkah through its lower side. He told them that if they met any resistance from the Quraish, they were to be detained until he reached As-Safa. Az-Zubair bin `Awwam (May Allah be Pleased with him) was placed as the leader of the left flank and would enter Makkah from the upper side holding high the banner of Messenger.

Abu `Ubaidah (May Allah be Pleased with him) was given command of the infantry and was to penetrate into the city through a side valley. They were given full and decisive orders not to kill unless in self defense, and if that occurred then they should exterminate any aggressive elements and crush any opposition.

The Muslim Army Enters Makkah

The Muslim battalions marched along their strategic routes to fulfill the missions they were ordered to carry out. Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him) worked his way into the heart of town quite successively, killing twelve wicked people and sustaining two martyrs. AzZubair (May Allah be Pleased with him) set out and reached the fixed destination where he planted the banner at Al-Fath (conquest) at the Masjid and waited there for the arrival of the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). A tent was pitched for the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and when he arrived, he offered prayers of gratitude to the Allah, the Almighty, who, out of His immense grace, had granted him a splendid victory.

The Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Enters the Sacred Masjid and Purifies it From Idols

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) did not relax for even a second, instead, in the company of the Helpers and Emigrants, he proceeded towards the Ka`bah, the Sacred House, which is a symbol of the Oneness and Supremacy of Allah. Unfortunately, it was full of three hundred and sixty idols. He knocked them down with his bow while reciting the Verse of the Noble Qur’an:

``And say: `Truth (i.e., Islamic Monotheism or this Qur’an or Jihad against polytheists) has come and Batil (falsehood, i.e., Satan or polytheism, etc.) has vanished. Surely! Batil is ever bound to vanish.’’’ [17:81]

And Allah further said:

``Say (O Muhammad): `The Truth (the Qur’an and Allah’s Revelation) has come, and Al-Batil (falsehood -- Iblis) can neither create anything nor resurrect (anything)’.’’ [34:49]

He then began the usual circumambulation while mounted. He was not in a state of ihram then. On completion, he called for `Uthman bin Talhah, the key holder of the Ka`bah, from whom he took the key. He went in and saw images of Prophets Ibrahim and Ismael (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), throwing divination arrows. He denounced these acts of the Quraish and ordered that all idols be broken, and images and effigies be erased.

The Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Prays in the Ka`bah and Delivers an Address to the Quraish

Accompanied by Usamah and Bilal, he entered the sacred hall to face the wall opposite the door where he offered prayer, and went around acclaiming Allah’s Greatness and Oneness.

Shortly afterwards, he returned to the doorway and standing upon its elevated step, gazed in gratitude on the huge number of people below and delivered the following celebrated address:

“There is no God but Allah, alone. He has no associates. He made good on His Promise that He made to His servant to help him, and it is He, alone, who defeated all the Confederates. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood or property, is under my heel; except that of the custody of the Ka`bah and supplying of water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for anyone who is slain, even though semi-intentional, with a club or a whip, for him the blood money is very severe: a hundred camels, forty of them to be pregnant.

``O people of Quraish! Surely, Allah has abolished from you all pride of the pre-Islamic era and all pride in your ancestry; all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made from dust.’’ 

He then recited to them the Verse:

``O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you near Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa [i.e., one of the Muttaqun, i.e., pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained)]. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware.’’ [49:13]

He further added:

``O you people of Quraish! What do you think of the treatment that I am about to accord to you?’’

They replied: “O noble brother and son of noble brother! We expect nothing but goodness from you.’’ Upon this he said:

``I speak to you in the same words as Yusuf (Joseph) spoke to his brothers: `No reproach on you this day,’ [12:92] go your way, for you are freed ones.’’

As for the door-keeping of the Ka`bah, it remained with `Uthman bin Talhah; and the responsibility of supplying water to the pilgrims remained with Al-`Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him).

Bilal (May Allah be Pleased with him) calls the Adhan at the Ka`bah

When the time for prayer approached, Bilal (May Allah be Pleased with him) ascended the Ka`bah and called for the prayer. Abu Sufyan bin Harb, `Attab bin Asid, and Al-Harith bin Hisham were meanwhile sitting in the yard and `Attab bin Asid commented on the new situation by saying that Allah honored Asid (his father) for not having to hear such words. The Prophet approached and assisted by Divine Revelation told them that he had learnt about what they had spoken of. Al-Harith and `Attab, taken by incredible surprise, immediately professed Islam and bore witness to the Messengership of Muhammad adding that “We swear by Allah that none had been with us to inform you.’’

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Prays a Victory Prayer, or a Prayer of Gratitude

On that very day, the Prophet entered Umm Hani’s house where he washed and offered prayers of victory. Umm Hani had sheltered two Makkan relatives of hers in her house for which she was granted support by the Prophet(May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).

Shedding the Blood of the Worst Criminals

Shedding blood of nine of the worst criminals was declared lawful even under the curtains of the Ka`bah. Some of them were later pardoned. `Abdul-’Uzza bin Khatal was found holding on to the curtain of the Ka`bah and was killed. `Abdullah bin Abu Sarah had become a Muslim and emigrated, but later left Islam and killed some of the Companions.

The other man who was put to death was Miqyas bin Sababah. He was a Muslim, Whose brother Hisham was accidentally killed by a Helper accidentally. The Prophet had arranged the payment of blood money to him, which he had accepted. His revengeful nature, however, was not satisfied, so he killed the Helper and went to Makkah as an apostate. Also killed were Huwairith and a woman singer.

On the other hand, every attempt was made to grant pardon to the people. `Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, who had attacked Khalid’s detachment at the time of the entry into Makkah, was forgiven. To Wahshi, the murderer of Hamzah, the Prophet’s uncle, and to Hind, who had chewed his liver, was also extended his generous mercy.

The same generous treatment was accorded to Habbar who had attacked the Prophet’s daughter with a spear so grievously that she ultimately died of the fatal injuries while on her way from Makkah to Madinah.

Safwan bin Umaiyah Accepts Islam

In the same context of nobility peculiar to Muhammad (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), two chiefs of Quraish were pardoned once they had embraced Islam. They were Safwan bin Umaiyah and Fudalah bin `Umair. The latter had attempted to assassinate the Prophet while he was circumambulating in the Holy Sanctuary.

The Prophet’s matchless tolerance and broad-mindedness instigated by his mission as ‘a mercy to all people’, converted a terrible hypocrite into a faithful devoted believer.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Addresses the People on the Second Day

On the second day of the great Conquest, the Prophet stood up and addressed the people in matters relating to the sacred status of Makkah.

After entertaining Allah’s praise, he proclaimed that Makkah was a holy land and would remain so until the Day of Judgment. No bloodshed was allowed therein. Should anyone take the liberty of fighting within Makkah on grounds derived from the events that characterized the Conquest, he should remember that it had been a license granted temporarily to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and not for others.

In one narration he said, “It is not allowed to uproot its shrubs or to cut its trees, or to chase (or disturb) its game, or to pick up its fallen things except by a person who would announce that (what has been found) publicly.”

Al-`Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him) said: “O Allah’s Messenger, except the lemon grass (for it is used) by our goldsmiths and for our homes.’’ The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) then said: “Except the lemon grass.”

In this context, out of the spirit of revenge, the tribesmen of Khuza`ah killed a man from the tribe of Laith. Here the Prophet was annoyed and ordered Khuza`ah to stop those pre-Islamic practices.

Additionally, he gave the family of anyone killed, the right to consider either of two options: blood money or just retribution.

In one narration, a man from Yemen named Abu Shah stood and said,

“Have it written down for me O Messenger of Allah!’’ So the Prophet said,

“Write it for Abu Shah.’’

The Helpers Fear the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) Might Stay in Makkah

After having delivered his address, the Prophet rode to a small hill, Safa, not far from the Ka`bah. Turning his face towards the Sacred House, amidst a vast admiring and devotional multitude, he raised his hand in a passionate prayer to Allah.

The citizens of Madinah who had gathered around him feared that since Allah had given him victory over his native city, he might choose to stay here. He insisted on an explanation of their fear and so they spoke openly. He immediately dismissed their fears and assured them that he had lived with them and would die with them.

Taking the Pledge

Immediately after the great Conquest, the Makkans came to realize that the only way to success lay in the avenue of Islam. They complied with the new realities and gathered to pledge loyalty to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The men first came to pledge full obedience in all areas they can afford. Then the women followed the men’s example. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be Pleased with him) received the pledge of loyalty and communicated to them on his behalf. Hind bint `Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s wife, came disguised in a group of women lest the Prophet recognize and take her into account for chewing the liver of Hamzah (May Allah be Pleased with him), his uncle.

The Prophet accepted their allegiance on condition that they should associate none with Allah, to which they immediately agreed. He added that they should not practice theft. Here Hind complained that her husband, Abu Sufyan, was tight-fisted. Her husband interrupted granting all his worldly possessions to her. The Prophet laughed and recognized the woman. She requested him to extend his pardon to her and to forgive all her previous sins. Some other conditions were imposed including the prohibition of adultery, killing of infants, and fabricating falsehood. To all these orders, Hind replied positively swearing that she would not have come to take an oath of allegiance if she still maintained the least seed of disobedience to him. On returning home, she broke her idol admitting her delusion over gods made of stone.

Allah’s Messenger stayed in Makkah for nineteen days. During that period he taught the people about Islam and guided them to piety. He ordered Abu Usaid Al-Khuza’i to fix the pillars of the Sacred Area, sent missions to all quarters inviting them to adopt Islam, and broke the idols that remained in the surrounding areas of Makkah. He told them:

``Whoever believes in Allah and the Hereafter, should not leave any idol in his house without breaking it.’’

Dispatching Platoons

Shortly after the great Conquest, the Prophet began to dispatch platoons and missions aimed at eliminating the last symbols of pre-Islamic practices.

  1. In Ramadan 8 A.H., he sent Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleasedwith him) to an area called Nakhlah where there was a goddess called Al-’Uzza who was venerated by the tribes of Quraish and Kinanah. Its custodians were from Bani Shaiban. Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him), at the head of thirty horsemen arrived at the spot and destroyed it. On his return, the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked him if he had seen anything there, to which Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him) gave a negative answer. Here, he was told that it had not been destroyed and he had to go there again and fulfill the task. He went back again he saw a naked black woman with wild hair. Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him) struck her with his sword and cut her into two parts. He returned and narrated the story to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), who then confirmed the fulfillment of the task.
  2. In the same month, `Amr bin Al-`As (May Allah be Pleased with him) was sent on a mission to destroy another idol called Suwa’ which was venerated by Hudhail. It was in an area that was at a distance of three kilometers from Makkah. On a question posed by the doorkeeper, `Amr (May Allah be Pleased with him) said that he had been ordered by the Prophet to knock down the idol. The man warned `Amr (May Allah be

Pleased with him) that he would not be able to do it. `Amr (May Allah be Pleased with him) was surprised to see someone who was still in ignorance, so he approached the idol and destroyed it; he then broke the casket that was beside it but found nothing. The man immediately embraced Islam.

  • Sa`d bin Zaid Al-Ashhali (May Allah be Pleased with him), in the samemonth, was sent on a similar mission to Al-Mushallal: to destroy the idol Manat that was venerated by both Al-Aws and Al-Khazraj tribes. Here to a black naked woman with messy hair appeared wailing and beating on her chest. Sa`d (May Allah be Pleased with him) immediately killed her, destroyed the idol and the casket, and returned at the conclusion of his mission.
  • Khalid bin Al-Walid (May Allah be Pleased with him) at the head ofthree hundred and fifty cavalry men from the Helpers, Emigrants, and Bani Sulaim was dispatched in 8 A.H., to the locality of the Bedouins of Bani Jadhimah to invite them to Islam.

He was instructed to carry out his mission with peace and goodwill. The people were not articulate enough to communicate their intentions, so because of a miscommunication Khalid ordered his men to kill them and take the others as captives. He also had the intention to kill the captives but some of the Companions opposed his plan. When news of the bloodshed reached the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) he was deeply grieved and raised his hands towards the heaven, uttering these words twice: “O Allah, I am innocent of what Khalid has done.’’

He immediately sent `Ali (May Allah be Pleased with him) to make reparation to the tribes who had been wronged. After a careful inquiry, `Ali paid the blood money to all those who suffered loss. The remaining portion was also distributed amongst the members of the tribe in order to alleviate their suffering. Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him), due to his unreasonable behavior, had a dispute with `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf (May Allah be Pleased with him). Hearing this, the Prophet became angry, and ordered Khalid (May Allah be Pleased with him) to stop that dispute adding that his Companions (meaning `Abdur-Rahman bin `Awf (May Allah be Pleased with him)) were too high in rank to be involved in such arguments.

That is the story of the conquest of Makkah and the decisive battle that eliminated paganism from there once and for all.

The other tribes in the Arabian Peninsula waited and watched closely the final outcome of the bitter struggle between the Muslims and idolaters, already convinced that the Holy Sanctuary would not fall but in the hands of the righteous party.

It had been a conviction deeply established in their minds ever since the elephant army of Abrahah al-Ashram advanced from Yemen intending to destroy the Sacred House sixty years ago.

The Treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah was the natural prelude to this great victory in which the people believed deeply and over which people talked a lot. The Muslims in Makkah, who had feared to declare their Faith openly, began to appear and work enthusiastically for this new approach of life.

People began to convert into Islam in large numbers, and the Muslim army that numbered only three thousand in the previous battle, now reached ten thousand.

In fact, this decisive change provided people with the keen insight to perceive things and the world around them as a whole in a different perspective. The Muslims were then to control all of the political and religious affairs in Arabia. They had monopolized both the religious supremacy and worldly power.

The whole post-Hudaibiyah phase had been well-furnished in favor of the new Islamic movement. Streams of desert Bedouins began to pour in paying full homage to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), embracing the new faith, and carrying it to various areas for propagation.

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