Upon his return from this long and successful expedition, Allah’s Messenger remained in Madinah where he received delegates and dispatched envoys. He also appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere.
Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too proud to embrace Allah’s religion, were decisively put down by their lack of status in Arabia.
We have already stated that the Messenger’s arrival in Madinah occurred in the last days of the 8th year of Hijra.
No sooner had the crescent moon of Muharram turned up, that Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) dispatched the following people to the following tribes:
- ‘Uyainah bin Hisn to Bani Tamim.
- Yazeed bin Husain to Aslam and Ghifar.
- ‘Abbad bin Bishr to Sulaim and Muzainah.
- Rafi’ bin Makith to Juhainah.
- ‘Amr bin Al-`As to Bani Fazarah.
- Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan to Bani Kilab.
- Bashir bin Sufyan to Bani Ka`b.
- Ibn Al-Lutbiyah Al-Azdi to Bani Dhubyan.
- Al-Muhajir bin Abi Umaiyah to San`a’ (Al-Aswad Al-’Ansi called athim when he was there).
- Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout.
- ‘Adi bin Hatim to Tai’ and Bani Asad.
- Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah.
- Az-Zibriqan bin Badr to Bani Sa`d (a branch).
- Qais bin `Asim to Bani Sa`d (a branch).
- Al-`Ala’ bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
- `Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to collect Sadaqah and Jizyah).
Some of these envoys were dispatched in Muharram, 9 A.H., while others were sent later after the tribes they were heading for had completely converted to Islam. Such was the great success that the Islamic Da’wah (Call) enjoyed after the Treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah. However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace Islam in large numbers.
In the same way that it was important to dispatch various envoys to the different tribes, it was important to dispatch some military platoons to different regions of Arabia for the establishment of security in all lands of Arabia.
Here is a list of those missions:
1. `Uyainah bin Hisn Al-Fazari’s (May Allah be Pleased with him) platoon was sent to Bani Tamim in Muharram, 9 A.H. It consisted of fifty horsemen, none of whom was an Emigrant or a Helper.
The reason for this mission was that Bani Tamim had begun to urge other tribes to not pay the head tax (Al-Jizyah), which they eventually stopped paying. Therefore, `Uyainah bin Hisn was set to fight them.
He marched the entire way by night and would camp in concealed locations during the day. He continued that way until he overtook them and attacked them in the desert. They fled for their lives. Eleven men, twenty-one women and thirty boys were captured. He drove them back to Madinah and they were housed in Ramlah bint Al-Harith’s residence.
Ten of their leaders, who came to the Prophet’s door, called him saying: “O Muhammad, come out and face us.’’ When he went out they held him and started talking.
He exchanged words with them for a while, then left them and went to perform the Dhuhr prayer. After prayer he sat in the courtyard of the Masjid. They proclaimed a desire to boast and praise themselves so they introduced their orator `Utarid bin Hajib who delivered his speech.
Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asked Thabit bin Qais bin Shammas (May Allah be Pleased with him), the Muslim orator, to respond, which he did. In return, they brought forth their poet Az-Zibriqan bin Badr who recited some boastful poetry.
Once again, Hassan bin Thabit (May Allah be Pleased with him), the poet of Islam, promptly replied back. When talks and poetry came to an end, AlAqra’ bin Habis said: “Their orator is more eloquent than ours, and their poet is more poetically learned than ours. Their voices and sayings excel ours, as well.’’
Eventually they announced their acceptance of Islam, which Allah’s Messenger acknowledged and rewarded them well and returned to them their women and children.
- A platoon headed by Qutbah bin `Amir (May Allah be Pleased with him) marched to an area inhabited by the tribe of Khath’am in Tabalah, which was an area of land not far from Turbah. That happened in Safar, 9 A.H. He was accompanied by twenty men and only ten camels, which they would ride alternatively. Qutbah (May Allah be Pleased with him) raided them and fought so fiercely that a great number of people from both parties were wounded and some were killed, which included Qutbah. The Muslims returned with camels, women, and sheep.
- The mission of Dahhak bin Sufyan Al-Kilabi (May Allah be Pleased withhim) to Bani Kilab in Rabi`ul-Awwal, 9 A.H. The purpose of this mission was to call Bani Kilab to embrace Islam. Not only did they refusing to embrace Islam, but they began to fight against the Muslims; however, they were eventually defeated and one man was killed.
- `Alqamah bin Mujazziz Al-Mudliji (May Allah be Pleased with him) wasdispatched in Rabi’ul-Akhir with three hundred men to the shores of Jeddah where some Abyssinians had gathered and would rob the Makkan caravans. Therefore, he crossed the sea to an island, but as soon as the pirates learned of Muslim armies arrival, they fled.
- `Ali bin Abi Talib (May Allah be Pleased with him) was tasked with themission to demolish Al-Qullus, which was an idol that belonged to the tribe of Tai’. This occurred in Rabi`ul-Awwal, 9 A.H. `Ali (May Allah be Pleased with him) was dispatched by Allah’s Messenger with one hundred and fifty men. A hundred of them were on camel, while the other fifty were on horseback. He held a black flag and a white banner.
At dawn they raided the colony of Hatim, demolished the idol and filled their hands with spoils, camels, and sheep. The sister of `Adi bin Hatim was one of the captives, while `Adi himself had fled. Inside a safe at Al-Qullus, the Muslims found three swords and three sets of armor. On the way, they distributed the spoils and put aside the best things for Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They did not share the captives.
Upon arrival in Madinah, the sister of `Adi bin Hatim begged Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to have mercy on her and said: “O Messenger of Allah, my brother is absent and father is dead, and I am too old to provide any service. Be beneficent to me so that Allah may be bountiful to you.’’ He said: “Who is your brother?’’ She said: “It is `Adi bin Hatim.’’ The Prophet asked: “Is he not the one who fled from Allah and His Messenger?’’ Then he went away from her. The next day she repeated the same thing as the day before and received the same answer. A day later she uttered similar words, this time he agreed. The man who was beside the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), and whom she thought to be `Ali, said to her: “Ask for an animal from him to ride,’’ which she did and her request was granted.
She went to Ash-Sham where she met her brother and said to him: “Allah’s Messenger has done me such a noble deed that your father would never have done. Therefore, frightened or secure, you should go and see him.’’ Insecure, neither protected by someone nor even recommended by a letter as a means of protection, `Adi came and met the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him).
Allah’s Messenger took him to his home. As soon as he sat before him, Allah’s Messenger thanked Allah and praised him, then said: “What made you flee? Did you flee lest you should say that there is no God but Allah? Do you know any other God but Allah?’’ “No,’’ he said, and then talked for a while. Allah’s Messenger went on saying: “Certainly you fled so that you may not hear the statement saying `Allah is the Greatest.’ Do you know anyone who is greater than Allah?’’ “No,’’ he said. “The Jews are those whose portion is wrath, and the Christians are those who have gone astray,’’ the Prophet said. “I am a Muslim and I believe in one God (Allah),’’ `Adi finally proclaimed with a joyous face.
The Prophet ordered him a residence with one of the Helpers. From that time he started visiting the Prophet in the mornings and in the evenings.
It is reported on the authority of Ibn Ishaq that when the Prophet made him sit down in front of him in his house, he said, “O `Adi, were you not a Rakusi (of a religion having some different beliefs from Christians)?’’
“Yes.’’ `Adi said. “Did you not share one quarter of your people’s gains?’’ “Yes,’’ said `Adi. Allah’s Messenger said: “It is sinful in your religion to do such a thing, and you should not allow yourself to do it.’’ “Yes, by Allah, that is true,’’ said `Adi. He continued: “Thus I worked out that he was a Prophet inspired by Allah, and sent message to people that he knows what is unknown.’’
In another version, the Prophet said, “`Adi, accept Islam and you shall be secure.’’ `Adi said: “But I am a man of religion.’’ “I know your religion better than you,’’ said the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). `Adi asked: “Do you know my religion better than me?’’ The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) replied, “Yes, are you not a Rakusi and still you appropriate to yourself the fourth of your people’s gains?’’ `Adi said: “Yes.’’ The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said: “It is unlawful in your religion to do such a thing.’’ `Adi added: “He did not need to say it again, for I immediately accepted it.’’
Al-Bukhari narrates that `Adi said: “While we were with the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), a man came in and complained to him about poverty. Then another man came in and complained about highway robbery. Allah’s Messenger then said: ‘O `Adi, have you ever been to Al-Hirah? If you live a long life, you would be able to see a woman riding a camel travel from Hirah until it circumambulates the Ka`bah fearing none but Allah. If you were to live long enough, you would open the treasures of Kisra. If you were to live long, you will see a man offering a handful of gold or silver to others, but none would accept it from him.’’ Until the end of this Hadith. `Adi later on said: “I have seen a woman riding a camel traveling from Al-Hirah until it circumambulates the Ka`bah fearing none but Allah; I have also been one of those who opened the treasures of Kisra bin Hurmuz. If you were to live long life, you would witness what the Prophet Abul-Qasim had already said about offering a handful of…’’ (i.e., the Prophet’s prophecies did really come true.)