Military Platoons and Missions between the Battle of Uhud and the Battle of the Confederates

The misfortunes encountered at Uhud left a negative impact on both the credibility and the military reputation of the Muslims. Their dignity and power within the eyes of the people became impaired, and troubles and dangers began to spread everywhere inside and outside of Madinah. The Jews, the hypocrites, and the Bedouins publicly declared their enmity toward the Muslims and each of them were keen on degrading and eventually wiping out the Muslims entire existence.

Near the completion of two months after the battle, Banu Asad made preparations to raid Madinah. During the same time the tribes of `Adl and Qarah conspired against the Muslims in the month of Safar, 4 A.H., and killed ten of the Prophet Companions. Similarly, Banu `Amir plotted against them, and seventy Companions were killed in the Battle of the Well of Ma`unah. During that period, Banu Nadeer kept announcing their enmity against the Muslims and were involved in a plan to kill Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in Rabi`ul-Awwal in 4 A.H. Banu Ghatafan were about to attack Madinah in Jumada Al-Awwal in 4 A.H.

Therefore we see that after the Muslims lost their military credibility, due to the events at the Battle of Uhud, the Muslims became a target of several potentially dangerous plots [by their enemies]. Prophet Muhammad (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was able to wisely contain all those hostile currents, restoring their lost dignity and gaining for them fresh glory and a noble standing. The first initiative he took in this process was the Hamra’ul-Asad operation, by which he was able to retain the reputation of the Muslim military. He succeeded in recovering the dignity and awe-inspiring position of his companions in a manner that astonished both the Jews and hypocrites; he then proceeded to crown his successful attempts by dispatching military expeditions.

The Abi Salamah Expedition

The first people to take up arms against the Muslims, in the aftermath of Uhud, were Banu Asad bin Khuzaimah. Information reached Madinah that Talhah and Salamah, sons of Khuwailid, had gathered a force of volunteers to fight against Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) immediately dispatched a military squad of one hundred and fifty men comprising of Helpers and Emigrants, which was headed by Abu Salamah (May Allah be Pleased with him). The Muslim leader took Bani Asad bin Khuzaimah by surprise in their homeland, neutralizing their threats and dispersing them, and in the process they captured their cattle. On their return, Abu Salamah (May Allah be Pleased with him) died of an inflammation from a previous wound which he sustained at Uhud. This expedition took place on the 1st of Muharram, 4 A.H.

The Mobilization of `Abdullah bin Unais (May Allah be Pleased with him)

On the fifth day, in the same month of Muharram, 4 A.H., the news that Khalid bin Sufyan Al-Hudhali was gathering a force to raid the Muslim positions was received. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) commanded `Abdullah bin Unais (May Allah be Pleased with him) to march out against the enemy and destroy them.

The Muslim force stayed away for eighteen days, during which time he successfully fulfilled his appointed task. He killed the leader of the rebels and brought his head back to Madinah on Saturday, seven days before the end of Muharram. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) gave him a staff as a reward while saying: “This will function as a sign of recognition for you and me on the Day of Resurrection.” On his death bed, `Abdullah requested that the staff be also place with him in his shroud.

The Raji’ Mobilization

In Safar, 4 A.H., a delegation from the tribes of `Adl and Qarah came to Madinah and asked the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) to send back with them a group of Companions who can instruct them in the religion. They claimed that some Muslims existed amongst them.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent six Companions, another version states ten, headed by Marthad bin Abi Marthad Al-Ghanawi (May Allah be Pleased with him), according to alBukhari it was `Asim bin Thabit (May Allah be Pleased with him) the grandfather of `Asim bin `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be Pleased with him). When they reached a spot called Ar-Raji`, between Rabigh and Jeddah, a hundred archers from Banu Lihyan surrounded them and began to attack. The group of Muslims took shelter on some high ground, and the Bedouins offered them their pledge that they would not be killed. `Asim (May Allah be Pleased with him) refused to come down, instead fighting until he and six of his companions were killed. Three men remained: Khubaib, Zaid bin Ad-Dathinah, and a third one (May Allah be Pleased with all of them).

The Bedouins once again offered them a guarantee of safety which they accepted. When they descended, the Bedouins displayed their treachery and bound them. The third man rebuked them for their insincerity and resisted them, so they killed him. The other two men had killed some notables of Quraish at Badr and so they were taken to Makkah and sold there.

Khubaib (May Allah be Pleased with him) was confined for some time, until it was unanimously decided that he would be crucified and so he was taken from the Holy Sanctuary to At-Tan`im for crucifixion. While there he requested a respite so that he can offer two units of prayer. After giving the final salutation of the prayer, he turned to his executioners and said: “Had I not been afraid that you would have thought that I was afraid of death, I would have prayed for a long time.”

It was Khubaib (May Allah be Pleased with him) who first set the tradition of offering two units of prayer before being executed. He then said: “Lord, count them one by one, and exterminate them to the last one.”

Afterwards, he recited some verses of poetry which eloquently spoke of the atrocities borne by him, and testified to his faith in Allah at this hour of suffering:

The Confederates have gathered their tribes around me; and summoned all those who could come.

They have gathered their women and children; I am bound firmly to a lofty trunk.

To Allah alone I complain of my helplessness and sufferings; and of the death, the Confederates have prepared for me.

Lord of the Throne, give me endurance against their design; they have cut my flesh bit by bit, and I have been deprived of sustenance.

They gave me the option to choose infidelity but death is preferable; tears roll out of my eyes, though not of fear.

By Allah, I fear not if I die a Muslim; on what side I fall for the sake of Allah.

I will not show subservience to the enemy, if the Lord so desires; He will bless my torn limbs and broken joints.

Abu Sufyan then addressed: “I ask you by Allah, do you not wish that Muhammad was here in your place, so that we might cut off his head while you remained with your family?” Khubaib (May Allah be Pleased with him) answered, “By Allah, I do not wish that Muhammad was in the place that I now occupy; I do not even wish for a thorn to hurt him, while I remained in the company of my family.” The Quraish ordered `Uqbah bin Al-Harith, whose father had been killed by Khubaib, to crucify him. They also appointed someone to guard his corpse. `Amr bin Umaiyah Ad-Damri was able to secretly remove and buried him during the night. It was later reported that shortly before his crucifixion, he was seen eating a bunch of grapes although not even a date was available in Makkah at that time. [In fact, it was nothing but sustenance bestowed upon him by Allah.]

As for Zaid bin Ad-Dathinah (May Allah be Pleased with him) he was purchased by Safwan bin Umaiyah, and killed as revenge for the death of his father.

The Quraish, one of whose notables was killed by `Asim (May Allah be Pleased with him), sent a person [to where he was slain] in order to get a portion of his body. However, to their disappointment, his corpse could not be reached because a large swarm of hornets were shielding him against any wrongful interference. `Asim (May Allah be Pleased with him) had given his Lord a pledge to remain immune against any tampering of the polytheist concerning his body, and also to stay apart from any contact with the enemies of Allah. When `Umar bin Al-Khattab (May Allah be Pleased with him) heard this piece of news, he said: “Allah verily protects His believing slave after death just as He does during his lifespan.”

The Tragedy at the Well of Ma’unah

The Ma’unah Well tragedy, which was even more horrible than that of ArRaji’, took place in the same month.

Abu Bara’ `Amir bin Malik, who was nicknamed the Spear Player, came to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) in Madinah. Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) called him to embrace Islam but he neither agreed nor refused. He said: “Messenger of Allah, if you dispatch some of your Companions to the people of Najd inviting them to Islam, I will expect them to accept.” The Messenger of Allah said: “I am afraid the people of Najd will kill them.” He replied, “I will protect them.” Ibn Ishaq confirms that forty men were sent to them, but in the Sahih, it is related that they were seventy, and this is what is correct. Al-Mundhir bin `Amr (May Allah be Pleased with him), one of those from the Bani Sa’idah, who was nicknamed `Freed to die’, was charge of the group. They were the best and most learned of the Qur’an.

On their way to Najd they would gather firewood during the day to buy food for the people of Ahlus-Suffah as charity, while studying and meditating on the meanings of the Qur’an by night. They kept doing this until they arrived at the Well of Ma`unah, which was between Bani `Amir, and stony land of Bani Sulaim. They stayed there and sent the message of the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) with Haram bin Milhan (May Allah be Pleased with him), the brother of Umm Sulaim (May Allah be Pleased with him), to `Amir bin At-Tufail, the enemy of Allah. `Amir did not pay any attention to the message, instead ordered a man to spear Haram in the back. When the spear penetrated Haram’s body, he saw the blood and said: ‘‘Allahu Akbar (i.e., Allah is the Most Great). By the Lord of the Ka`bah, I have won!’’

Then the enemy of Allah, promptly, called out Bani `Amir to fight the rest of the Muslims. Bani `Amir refused due to them being under the protection of Abu Bara’. So he turned to Bani Sulaim for help, and the people of `Usaiyah, Ri’l and Dhakwan, who were people of Bani Sulaim, responded to his call. The Companions of the Prophet, who were surrounded by idolaters, continued fighting until they were all martyred. The only survivor was Ka`b bin Zaid bin An-Najjar (May Allah be Pleased with him) who was carried wounded from among the dead. It was during the battle of AlKhandaq (the Trench) that he was killed.

`Amr bin Umaiyah Ad-Damri and Al-Mundhir bin `Uqbah bin `Amir, who were entrusted with the animals of the Muslims, and who were far away, rushed to the fight when they saw the birds circling in the air over the battleground. Al-Mundhir was killed, while `Amr bin Umaiyah was captured. `Amir set him free when he came to know that he was from the tribe of Mudar; however, this was after he had cut his hair. He released him due to the fulfillment of a pledge of his mother to set a slave free.

`Amr bin Umaiyah (May Allah be Pleased with him) returned to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and conveyed the painful news of the disaster that befell them, which resulted in the murder of seventy of the best believers; it recalled the tragedy of Uhud, with the difference that those killed at Uhud were killed in a clear battle, but those of Ma`unah were killed in a disgraceful treachery. On his way back to Qarqarah, `Amr bin Umaiyah (May Allah be Pleased with him) rested under the shade of a tree, and he was joined by two men from Bani Kilab. When they had fallen asleep, `Amr killed them both, thinking that he would avenge the death of some of his companions. Later he found out that they had been given a pledge of protection by the Prophet. He related to Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) what he had done. Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said to `Amr (May Allah be Pleased with him): “You have killed two people, their blood money shall be a debt I have to discharge.” He then engaged himself in collecting for their blood money from the Muslims and their allies, the Jews. This would later become a cause for the invasion of Bani An-Nadeer.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) was so deeply affected by this tragedy and that of Ar-Raji’ that he would invoke Allah’s wrath against those people and the tribes who aided in killing his Companions. Anas (May Allah be Pleased with him) reported that the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) supplicated to Allah for thirty days against those who killed his Companions at the Well of Ma’unah. During every Fajr prayer he would invoke Allah’s wrath against Ri’l, Dhakwan, Lihyan and `Usaiyah. He would say, “Usaiyah disobeyed

Allah and His Messenger.” Therefore Allah sent down on to His Messenger a Qur’anic Verse that we kept reciting until it was later abrogated: `Inform our people that we have met our Lord, He is pleased with us and He has made us pleased.’ So Allah’s Messenger stopped his invocation.”

The Invasion of Bani An-Nadeer

We have already spoken about the disgraceful behavior that the Jews exhibited; how they desired to shed the blood of the Muslims and undermine the cause of Islam despite all the covenants and pledges they had given to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Their behavior fluctuated between acceptance and negligence after the Banu Qainuqa` incident; the murder of Ka`b bin Al-Ashraf and the rebellion, they conducted treacherous secret contacts with the Quraish and the hypocrites in order to establish an alliance against the Muslims after the battle of Uhud. Being inexperienced in war tactics, they turned to conspiracy and hatching plots. They first declared open hatred and enmity, and took part in all sorts of tricks that might cause harm to the Muslims; however, they were very careful not to initiate any hostilities that might conclude in open war with them.

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), on his part, exercised the highest degree of patience with them; however they went too far in their provocative deeds, especially after the events of Ar-Raji` and the Well of Ma`unah; even making an attempt on his life.

The Prophet, accompanied with some of his Companions, set out to Banu Nadeer in seeking their assistance in raising the blood money that needed to be paid to Bani Kalb for the two men that `Amr bin Umaiyah Ad-Damri had killed. This was in accordance with the clauses of the treaty that both parties had already signed. They agreed to share in the payment of the blood money and asked him and his Companions Abu Bakr, `Umar, `Ali, and others to sit under a wall of their houses and wait. The Jews held a short private meeting in which they conspired to kill the Prophet. The most wicked among them, `Amr bin Jahsh, volunteered to climb up the wall and drop a large stone on his head. One of them, Sallam bin Mishkam, cautioned them against committing such a crime, predicting that Allah would reveal their plot to him, and added that such an act would constitute a flagrant violation of the pact they had with the Muslims.

In fact, Jibreel had come down and revealed to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) their wicked criminal intention, so he, with his Companions, hurried back to Madinah. On their way, he told his Companions of the Divine Revelation.

Soon after, the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) delegated Muhammad bin Maslamah (May Allah be Pleased with him) to communicate an ultimatum to Bani Nadeer: either evacuate Madinah within ten days or they will be killed. The chief of the hypocrites, `Abdullah bin Ubai, urged the Jews not to pay any attention to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) words and to stay in their houses, offering to support them with two thousand of his followers, and assuring them that help will come from the tribe of Quraizah and former allies of Banu Ghatafan. Allah says in this regard:

``If you are expelled, we (too) indeed will go out with you, and we shall never obey anyone against you, and if you are attacked (in fight), we shall indeed help you.'' [59:11]

Regaining their confidence the Jews became determined to fight. Their chief Huyai bin Akhtab relied completely on what the chief of the hypocrites said. So he sent to Allah’s Messenger a reply saying: “We will not leave our houses. Do whatever you like.”

The situation became awkward for the Muslims. Launching a war against their opponents at this critical stage would involve terrible far reaching consequences in the light of the unfavorable conditions that they were experiencing. This was in addition to the hostile environment that was growing in power and hatred around them, which could be seen of killing the Muslim during their missions, as mentioned earlier.

The Jews of Bani Nadeer were also a power that needed to be considered, and the prospect of inflicting a military defeat on them was uncertain; consequently forcing them into an armed engagement may include unpredictable risks. On the other hand, the continual state of repeated assassinations and acts of treachery carried out against the Muslims, both individually and collectively, brought about an unbearable problem to the followers of Muhammad (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). Having judged all the positives and negatives in this perspective, and in the light of the disgraceful attempt on the life of the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him), the Muslims made the decisive decision to take up arms against the Jews irrespective of the consequences that this may bring.

When Allah’s Messenger received the reply of Huyai bin Akhtab he said: ‘‘Allahu Akbar (Allah is the Most Great),’’ and the Companions repeated it after him. After appointing Ibn Umm Maktum to administer the affairs of Madinah during his absence, he set out to fight them and the standard was entrusted to `Ali bin Abi Talib. He laid siege to their forts for six nights, while another version states fifteen.

Banu Nadeer retreated into their castles and began to shoot arrows and pelting stones at the Muslims enjoying the strategic advantage that their thick fields of palm trees provided. The Muslims were therefore ordered to cut and burn those trees. In this respect, Allah the All-Mighty states in the Qur’an:

``What you (O Muslims) cut down of the palm trees (of the enemy), or you left them standing on their stems, it was by leave of Allah.'' [59:5]

The tribe of Quraizah remained neutral, and the hypocrite `Abdullah bin Ubai as well as Ghatafan failed to keep their promises of support. In this regard Allah says:

``(Their allies deceived them) like Satan, when he says to man: `Disbelieve in Allah.' But when (man) disbelieves in Allah, Satan says: ‘I am free of you.''' [59:16]

The siege did not last long for Allah the All-Mighty cast horror into the hearts of the Jews, and they willingly offered to comply with the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) order to leave Madinah. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) accepted their request and allowed them to carry as much luggage as their camels could carry, with the exception of any weapons. They had no choice but to carry out the orders, so they took everything that they could carry with them, even the pegs and beams of ceilings. Their caravan counted 600 loaded camels including their chiefs, Huyai bin Akhtab and Salam bin Abul-Huqaiq, who left for Khaibar whereas another party headed for Syria. Two of them embraced Islam, Yamin bin `Amr and Abu Sa`d bin Wahb, and so they retained their personal wealth.

Allah’s Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) seized their weapons, lands, houses, and wealth. Among the other booty he managed to capture were 50 suits of armor, 50 helmets, and 340 swords.

This booty was exclusively for the Prophet(May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) as no fighting had taken place in capturing it. He divided the booty based on his own discretion among the early Emigrants and two poor Helpers: Abu Dujanah and Sahl bin Hunaif. Allah,s Messenger also spent a portion of this wealth on the yearly living expenses of his family. The rest was spent on equipment for the Muslim army which would be needed for further wars in the cause of Allah.

The invasion of Bani An-Nadeer took place in Rabi`ul-Awwal, 4 A.H., corresponding to August 625 C.E. Almost all the verses of Surat Al-Hashr (Chapter 59: The Gathering) describe the exile of the Jews and reveal the disgraceful manners of the hypocrites. The verses also manifest the rules that were applied to the booty.

This Chapter contains praise from Allah, the Almighty, for the Emigrants and the Helpers. This Chapter also proves the legality of cutting down and burning the land and trees of the enemies for military purposes. Such acts cannot be regarded as transgression so long as they are done in the cause of Allah.

This Chapter also contains Allah’s command for the believers to maintain piety and preparation for the next world. He ends the Chapter with His praise and an amplification of His Names and Attributes.

Ibn Abbas (May Allah be Pleased with him) would also call this Chapter Surat An-Nadeer owing to its concentration on Bani An-Nadeer and their expulsion

This is a summary of what was reported by Ibn Ishaq and other scholars of Seerah concerning this battle. However, Abu Dawud, `Abdur-Razzaq and others have reported additional information concerning the battle. After the events of Badr, the disbelievers from among the Quraish sent a message to the Jews stating that they should kill Muhammad, owing to their possession of fortresses and armor, otherwise they themselves would accomplish this and would therefore enslave the Jewish women. After receiving this message, the Jews of Banu Nadeer gathered to conspire against the Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him). They sent a message to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) asking him to come with thirty of his Companions, and they also would come with thirty of their rabbis. They would all meet at a set location and they would listen to what the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) had to say, half from this group and half from theirs. If they trusted and believed in him then all of their people would follow suit [in accepting Islam].

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out with thirty of his Companions, while the Jews also set out with thirty rabbis to meet him. When the Jews reached a certain area some of them said to the others, “How can we kill him while he is accompanied by thirty men, all of whom wish to die before him?” So they sent a message saying: “How can we and you come to a mutual understanding while we will total sixty men? Come with three of your Companions and we will send three of our learned men to listen to you. If they trust you then we all will trust and believe in you.”

The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) set out with three of his Companions, however before reaching the rendezvous they received information that the Jews had concealed their daggers and were plotting to assassinate the Prophet, so he returned. The next morning the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) sent them a message and surrounded them. He related to them that they would not be trusted without a treaty, but they refused to a treaty. So on the day of their refusal the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) and the Muslims fought against them. The following day he left Bani Nadeer and sent a message to Bani Quraizah inviting them to make a treaty, to which they agreed. He then left Bani Quraizah the following morning and returned to Bani Nadeer with whom he continued fighting until they agreed to expulsion, taking no weapons with them. They came out of their city with whatever property their camels were able to carry; they even included the gates and beams to their houses. They demolished their abandoned homes, carrying with them all that they could of the timber. They were the first to be expelled [by the Muslims] to the lands of greater Syria.

The Second Battle of Badr

After the Muslims were able to end the power of the Bedouin Arab tribes, thus protecting themselves against their evils, they began preparations to encounter the greater enemy [the Quraish]. A year had passed since they fought against the Quraish at Uhud, and the time was drawing near for them to meet again for battle in order to determine which of the two parties was worthy of survival.

In Sha’ban, 4 A.H., corresponding to January, 626 C.E., Allah’s Messenger set out for Badr accompanied by one thousand and five hundred fighters and ten mounted horsemen; `Ali bin Abi Talib was the standard bearer. `Abdullah bin Rawahah was given authority over Madinah in the Prophet’s absence. The Muslims stayed at Badr waiting for the idolaters to come.

The force of Abu Sufyan comprised of two thousand infantry and fifty cavalry. Reaching Marr Az-Zahran, a few miles outside of Makkah, they camped at a water place called Majannah. Being reluctant, discouraged and extremely terrified of the consequences of the approaching fight, Abu Sufyan turned to his people and began to introduce cowardly excuses to discourage his people from going to war. He said: “Tribe of Quraish, nothing will improve your condition except a fruitful year; a year in which your animals feed on plants and bushes and give you milk to drink. I see that this will be a rainless year, so I am returning and I recommend that you return with me.” It seemed that his army also possessed the same fears and anxiety, for they readily obeyed him without the least hesitation.

The Muslims, who were waiting at Badr, remained there for eight days. They took advantage of their stay and began to trade, resulting in substantial profits. Due to the failure of the idolaters to fight, the balance of power once again shifted in favor of the Muslims. The Muslims were able to regain their military reputation, their dignity, and managed to impose their awe-inspiring presence over the whole of Arabia. In brief, they mastered and controlled the entire situation.

This expedition had many names: Badr the Appointment, Badr, the Second, Badr, the Latter, and the Badr Minor.

The Expedition of Dumatul-Jandal

With the Messenger (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) return from Badr, peace and security prevailed over the entire area. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) deemed it appropriate to send expeditions to the farthest areas of Arabia in order to suppress all hostile elements, and gain recognition both from their allies and their enemies.

After a six-month lull in military activities, it was reported to the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) that some tribes bordering Syria, in the vicinity of Dumatul-Jandal, were committing highway robbery and plunder, and was in the process of gathering troops to attack Madinah. He immediately appointed Siba’ bin `Arfatah Al-Ghifari to administer the affairs of Madinah and set out at the head of an army that comprised of a thousand Muslims. This occurred toward the end of Rabi`ulAwwal, 5 A.H. He took with him Madhkur, from Bani `Udhrah, as a guide.

On their way to Dumatul-Jandal, they would march at night and hide during the day, so as not to alert the enemy. When the Muslims got close to their destination, they discovered that the enemy had retreated to another place [leaving behind] their cattle, which the Muslims captured. The inhabitants of Dumatul-Jandal also fled in all directions and evacuated their inhabitants. The Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) remained there for five days dispatching expeditionary forces to hunt for any enemy personnel, however they found none. On his return to Madinah he entered into a peace treaty with `Uyainah bin Hisn. Dumatul-Jandal was located at a distance of around fifteen days march from Madinah and five days from Damascus.

With a decisive and steady progress culminating from his wise plans, the Prophet (May the peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) managed to spread security and control any situation, thus causing peace to prevail over the entire area. He also succeeded in shifting the course of events for the welfare of the Muslims by minimizing the continual internal and external problems. The hypocrites were silenced, a Jewish tribe was expelled, while the others continued to fake good neighborliness and seemingly faithful adherence to the covenants, the Bedouins became submissive, and the Quraish, who were the archenemy of the Muslim, no longer seemed keen on attacking the Muslims. This secure strategic attitude created optimum circumstances for the Muslims to resume their logical course in propagating Islam and communicating the Messages of the Lord.

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